Thought-Pourri: Possessive Edition

For those of you in the DC area, don’t forget that tonight from 6:00-8:00 pm the Catholic Information Center, located at 1501 K Street NW, will be hosting its annual Christmas Poetry Party, in conjunction with the Thomas More Society of America. I will be one of the presenters, and if that doesn’t entirely put you off, drop by and say hello! There will be refreshments and plenty of good cheer on offer, and the event is absolutely free.

Meanwhile, this morning I’m currently participating as an absentee bidder in a live auction taking place elsewhere, for a painting that I’m very interested in adding to my collection, so fingers x’ed…

And with that, it’s time for some headlines:

The King’s Pictures

After Charles I was overthrown and executed in 1649 during the English Civil War, much of the substantial art collection which he and his ancestors had accumulated was sold off and scattered to the winds. When his son Charles II ascended the throne at the Restoration in 1660, the Stuarts had a great deal of work to do to restore the prestige of the monarchy. Through a variety of means, the new king managed to start over, acquiring a number of works of art which are featured in an exhibition this month at the Queen’s Gallery at Buckingham Palace. Among the items featured in “Charles II: Art & Power” is one of Lorenzo Lotto’s (1480-1557) best paintings, his portrait of the Venetian art dealer Andrea Odoni sitting in his shop, surrounded by statues and casts of classical sculpture. I particularly like how the dramatically foreshortened right arm and hand are shown holding out a small classical sculpture, as if Odoni is offering it to us for sale, and the mixture of charcoal and dove grays, mossy green, and caramel browns create a surprisingly rich color palette.

Lotto

Vienna’s Virtu

The shortlived Wiener Werkstätte (“Vienna Workshop”), from the beginning of the previous century, had a major impact on Modern art, architecture, and design, thanks in part to its espousal of innovative design methods, which it disseminated globally through the creation of satellite workshops in Germany, Switzerland, and New York. Now a major new exhibition in the latter city, at the Neue Galerie for German and Austrian art, is bringing together a wide range of objects created by the Austrian artistic collective, from furniture and ceramics to jewels and decorative objects. Among the beautiful items displayed in the “Wiener Werkstätte 1903-1932: The Luxury of Beauty” show is this astonishing jewelry box, which in the art trade is known as an “objet de vertu” or “vertu” for short. These were items that often had no practical purpose, or were so luxurious as to be somewhat impractical, but which nevertheless featured an incredibly detailed and painstaking level of craftsmanship.

Wiener

Hoving’s Hordes

It’s hard to imagine now, but there was a time when art museums were fairly hushed, quiet spaces, where there were rarely large crowds of people. That all changed forever, at least at the world’s larger museums, with the blockbuster 1978 exhibition, “Treasures of Tutankhamun” at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. In a fascinating piece from this month’s Vulture/New York Magazine, Boris Kachka explains how one man, former Met director Thomas Hoving, took a gamble on making an art exhibition a must-see event for Americans – like the Super Bowl or the final episode of “Cheers” – and succeeded so far beyond expectations that eventually everyone else in the museum world followed suit. A healthy debate could be had over whether Hoving’s hordes of exhibition visitors have improved or ruined the experience of visiting an exhibition, or indeed a cultural institution focused primarily on visitor numbers.

Tut

Degas’ Development

Those of my readers who happen to be in the Denver area between February and May of next year will want to check out the newly-announced exhibition, “Degas: A Passion for Perfection”, which will be held at the Denver Art Museum. Covering over fifty years of the work of French Impressionist Edgar Degas (1834-1917), the show will feature over 100 examples of Degas’ varied output and artistic development, including paintings, pastels, drawings, and sculptures, alongside the work of some of his contemporaries and friends. Of particular interest is this rather early picture by Degas, painted in around 1865 and now in the collection of the Orsay in Paris, which shows a group of men on horseback shooting at and trampling over a group of nude women, while a city burns in the background. It’s such a strange picture, and so not what springs to mind when one things of the work of Degas, that I don’t quite know what to make of it – but it’s definitely piqued my interest.

Degas

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Visiting Vicens: Gaudí’s First House Opens To The Public

One of the things I’m hoping to see when I head to Barcelona in a few weeks is the Casa Vicens, the first private home designed by the great Catalan architect Antoni Gaudí (1852-1926). It was originally built to serve as a weekend retreat for a Barcelona stockbroker, over 125 years ago. The house served as a private residence until as recently as 2014, but as of this November, it has been opened to the public as a museum.

Regular readers will recall that I previously wrote about the ongoing restoration efforts at the Casa Vicens, a house which features a dazzling variety of materials and construction methods, both inside and out. As you can imagine, there had been a lot of wear and tear on the building, as happens in any home that is actually lived in. Yet while parts of the house were altered over the years, visitors to the new museum will still be able to witness many of the extraordinary architectural and design juxtapositions which the young Gaudí was able to pull off.

From the multimedia gallery on the museum’s website, I wanted to point out a few of the amazing details of the house, which was nothing like Barcelona – or indeed the rest of the world for that matter – had ever seen before. Here we see part of the façade of the house, along with its extraordinary gate and sidewalk railing. The color scheme is a mixture of salmon, turquoise, peach, and green, while an unusual range of materials from brick and stone to tile and concrete give some hint of the extraordinary design elements that await the visitor inside. Note also the ornate yet rather modern-looking wrought iron gate, which is composed of a series of panels in the form of palm fronds.

Facade

Once inside, many of the public rooms of the house have spectacular ceilings featuring bright color schemes, which forgo tradition and subtlety in order to achieve maximum impact. For example, this detail shows that Gaudí was quite capable of creating a ceiling design reminiscent of Perpendicular Gothic, which most architects would have left white. Here however, the stucco and tile elements are executed in a cobalt blue and a chartreuse yellow-green.

Ceiling

Here we see one of the public rooms of the house, with another extraordinary ceiling – this time of scallop shells and roses. The walls are covered with faux marble wainscoting below, and two-tone cranberry red plasterwork of vines up above. This room gives onto a tiled loggia, where the openings are simplified forms of architectural shapes that one would expect to see in Islamic buildings.

Interior

Head upstairs to one of the bathrooms, normally one of the more utilitarian areas of a house, and the unusual juxtapositions continue. Here, the architect places modern-looking corbels and compound support beams above a Pompeian red plaster wall with arcade detailing, baby blue and white checkerboard tile wainscoting, a slim chair rail border composed of tiles decorated with quinces and leaves, and bright yellow flowers festooned across the ceiling panels. Considered individually, none of these things should go together, and yet the overall effect is that of an ancient Roman bath somewhere in Provence

Bathroom

Finally, up on the roof of the house, we can admire a detail which hardly anyone would have ever seen up close, even when the house was filled with guests. The maids would have come up here to perform tasks requiring sunshine and breezes, such as drying the household laundry or beating the dust out of rugs. They would have seen not only the colorful elements of the building’s façade, but also this almost Mid-Century Modern railing of flowers contained within simplified, circular vines. The delicate design belies the sturdy, wrought iron craftsmanship that went into their execution.

Railing

Now, if you find all of this too much to take, don’t worry about it. Personally, I’ve always been fascinated by this house, but I understand that it may not be to everyone’s taste. And truth be told, I wouldn’t want to live in it, myself. (Where would I hang all the paintings?)

That being said however, you certainly can’t call the Casa Vicens a boring piece of architecture or design. The young Gaudí, with his first major commission to complete, and his patron, a man who clearly didn’t fear trying something bold and original in his own home, managed to create a truly unique house, and to do so with a great deal of self-confidence and aplomb. I’m looking forward to the opportunity to finally have a wander around the place.

Rome Don’t Cost A Thing: A Great Architecture Course From Yale

Yesterday afternoon, after many weeks, I finished a course at Yale University on the history and development of Ancient Roman architecture.

Well okay, not *really*.

I didn’t have to sit any exams, write any papers, or matriculate at Yale in order to take this class. Instead, I was able to watch a series of videos and read accompanying course materials from Yale art historian Diana E.E. Kleiner, Ph.D., covering the development of Roman architecture both in Rome itself and throughout the Roman imperial world. The lectures are a wonderful online resource, but they’re just one example of how you can use technology during your free time to educate yourself about subjects such as art, architecture, and design, without having to go back to school for it.

Dr. Kleiner is the Founding Director of Open Yale Courses, which provides a host of free, online courses to the general public. The closest analogy here is that it’s somewhat like auditing a class, when you don’t receive any credits or submit any work, but you’re very interested in the professor or the subject matter and want to gain greater knowledge for yourself. For me, that’s always been the most enjoyable sort of class: you’re there because you really want to be.

In this particular course, Dr. Kleiner gives an overview of the history and development of Roman architecture, from the misty legends of Rome’s founding by Romulus, all the way through the reign of the Emperor Constantine and the subsequent transfer of the imperial capital to Constantinople. There are 23 lectures in total, and each is well over an hour long. I’ve been watching them in half-hour installments during my lunch breaks for the last couple of months, although you could certainly binge-watch if you wanted to.

Nero

From the 200-series course number, my guess is that this class was designed for college sophomores, so don’t presume that the material is so specialist in nature as to be over your head. Dr. Kleiner does assume that you’ve at least heard of people and places such as Julius Caesar, Cleopatra, the city of Pompeii, and so on. But that being said, she does take the time to not only explain political and social history, but also to reinforce what she teaches. She makes a point of regularly recalling terminology, characteristics, and individuals who are important in Roman history, particularly with respect to the design and function of buildings.

Even if you are reasonably well-versed in art, architecture, and design, there is a great deal to learn here, and much to take away. For example, one strand of the course examines the evolution of Roman wall painting through four distinct, identifiable styles. After presenting the material, it’s not left by the wayside never to be referred to again. Rather, we come to see how sometimes, what at first only existed in an artist’s image painted on a wall, fuelled the imagination of later architects who executed these two-dimensional fantasies in three dimensions. Thus by the time the course examines the famous Nabataean cliff tombs in present-day Jordan – one of which is the site of the climactic conclusion of “Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade” – we can understand how the architects combined local architectural methods and materials, as well as Greco-Roman classical design, under the influence of Roman wall painting.

Jones

Another area of knowledge which the student comes away with is an appreciation for the differences between Greek and Roman temple design, and how to recognize some of these differences more readily when encountered in everyday life. Many structures which we see on a daily basis such as government buildings, churches, and transportation centers, particularly in this country, are adaptations of Roman designs, but we regularly pass by them without thinking about what ancient buildings their architects were referencing. Dr. Kleiner’s course fundamentally alters the way that you look at such buildings, so that over time you gradually begin to appreciate the subtle differences between what might otherwise just appear to be one pseudo-temple versus another.

The First Bank of the United States in Philadelphia for example, which was built in 1795, incorporates the most important elements of Ancient Roman temple design: elements which we come to recognize as a result of Dr. Kleiner taking the time to point them and reinforce in our minds throughout the course. We can see the placement of this building on a high podium, with a façade orientation, and a deep porch with columns, all of which are characteristic of Roman temple architecture. At the same time however, thanks to the course, we come to appreciate the ways in which this building deviates from a standard Roman temple. For example, although it has the single staircase one expects on a Roman temple, rather than the wrap-around stairs of a Greek structure, this particular staircase is three-sided, which deviates from the usual Roman plan.

Bank

While I strongly urge you to consider “taking” Dr. Kleiner’s course, whether you enjoy studying architecture as much as I do or are just curious to have a better understanding of the buildings that stand around you, the most important thing for you is to take some action. There is a great wealth of material just like this available to you for free, online, 24 hours a day, from some of the best academics, experts, and commentators on the arts. All you have to do is Google it.

An often-repeated refrain on this blog over the years has been that you have a responsibility, as an educated adult, to continue to educate yourself long after you leave formal schooling behind. The onus is on you to make the effort. If you want to better understand the history and development of architecture in the Western world, this is a very fine place to start.