Blog Tour: Saints Who Battled Satan by Paul Thigpen

I’m honored to be a part of the blog tour for author Paul Thigpen’s latest, “Saints Who Battled Satan”, published by TAN Books. In this compendium, Thigpen looks at the lives of seventeen saints who took the devil by the horns, and won. In the process, he also provides examples and teaching moments, not only about coming to terms with the existence of evil, personified, but also about how men and women throughout the centuries have dealt with that reality in ways that kept them close to God.

As one might expect, if one is a regular reader of these pages, I wanted the chance to review the chapter on St. Dominic, being the Dominican fanboy that I am. Despite the enormous impact that he had, not only on the Church but on world history, St. Dominic is someone who is not as well-known as his friend and contemporary, St. Francis of Assisi. Most Catholics can recall stories about St. Francis preaching to the birds, receiving the stigmata, or setting up the first Christmas crèche, yet if they know anything about St. Dominic at all, it is that he gave us the rosary. Not a bad thing of course, as attributes ago, but as Thigpen points out in his chapter on the saint, St. Dominic became a personal target for the devil as soon as he set foot in Albigensian territory.

As a form of neo-Manicheanism, the Albigensian heresy in 13th century France was well-suited to Satan’s purposes. Believing, inter alia, that there was a good god or spirit who created the spiritual world, and a bad one who created the material world, and that the material world was therefore subject to the whims of the bad fellow, the Albigensians in their puritanism almost paradoxically invited satan in to take things over. Thigpen selects several accounts of how, in his work against this heresy, St. Dominic was not only able to perceive, but easily cast out the devil, even when those around him were enthralled to the enemy. The stories of how he did so strike the modern reader as being somewhat fantastical in nature, I admit. However, as neither you nor I were there at the time, I think we can try to remain humble, recognize that God can do what He wants, and leave the details to the ages.

Interestingly, in some of the instances recounted by Thigpen, St. Dominic does not immediately perceive the devil at work, realizing later what is going on. At other times, the saint actually engages the demon, one on one, and fearlessly. Thigpen is quick to point out, lest the reader begin holding ideas above his station, that St. Dominic was somehow uniquely protected from infernal attacks in a way that most of us are not. Thus, when he realizes the devil is prowling around his priory like a lion, St. Dominic is able to take the beast on a walk around the building, so he can get a satan’s-eye-view of what is going on there, and how the devil takes advantage of opportunities to distract the friars from prayer and good living. It is only the chapter room, where the friars go for confession, that the devil refuses to enter.

One comes away with the impression that St. Dominic was someone keenly aware of the fact that the devil is all around, but who more importantly recognized that in the end it is God alone who triumphs: he believed in the power of God’s Word, not in physical manifestations of the power of evil, an evil which will ultimately be subjugated. St. Dominic’s unflappability provides a great source of encouragement and strength, even when, as happened to St. Dominic himself in the stories recounted by Thigpen, we are set upon by those who would seek to do us harm. We should come through those trying times, as St. Dominic did in one instance, through trust and confidence in what is above, by singing joyfully to God.

As a final note, the reader is encouraged to make use of the appendices in Thigpen’s book. Most of the time, these sections are of little use to anyone other than the specialist reader. Here, however, the author collects a number of brief stories about various saints, and their own encounters with the devil. He also gives a number of quotes and passages written by the saints, on how best to deal with temptations and attacks that may come from below. Even after one has read the entire book, these sections in the back will be a wonderful source of inspiration not only for the average Catholic, but also for writers, homilists, and speakers to use as jumping-off points for further exploration and discussion.

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The Gospel of Happiness

Today I’m very pleased and honored to once again be part of Image Books’ latest blog tour. This time we’re going to be looking at “The Gospel of Happiness”, a new book by Dr. Christopher Kaczor, the William E. Simon Visiting Fellow in Religion and Public Life in the James Madison Program at Princeton, and professor of philosophy at Loyola Marymount in Los Angeles.  My thoughts appear below, but to read what other bloggers have thought of it, be sure to visit the Image website, and click through the Blog tour links to see what other writers – including my friend Kathy Schiffer over at Patheos – are saying about this helpful addition to your bookshelf.

We begin, as we must, with an overview of what the author is trying to tell us with respect to living a happier life. I’m going to ask you to bear with me through this more formalized part of this post, since I think it only fair that I try to give you some general idea of what we’re talking about here. After which, I hope you’ll stick around since, while I don’t often share personal details on these pages, I do intend to share a little bit about my personal reaction to this book, in particular its final chapter, which I found it extremely helpful.

In “The Gospel of Happiness”, Christopher Kaczor outlines positive psychology, a concept which has gained significant traction in the field of psychology over the last few decades. Instead of taking a pathological – and these days ultimately pharmaceutical – approach to the study, understanding, and treatment of mental illness, positive psychology looks at ways in which people can bring about self-improvement through the adoption of more positive attitudes and reactions to the circumstances of their lives. Dr. Kaczor certainly does not suggest that *all* people suffering from depression, addiction, and other maladies can be helped through non-clinical intervention. Rather, if I may paraphrase his work, he advocates what the ancient Romans understood, which my Catholic readers will recognize immediately as the motto of St. Ignatius of Loyola (and himself a significant influence on Dr. Kaczor’s own spirituality), of striving for the one-two combination of a sound mind in a sound body.

Positive psychology does not suggest that one must burst into a chorus of “Everything Is Awesome” whenever one is faced with difficult circumstances. Instead, it recognizes that in many cases, people can change their circumstances, or at least their reactions to them, by trying to focus on good things: those benefits they do possess despite their problems, ways they may be able to help others less fortunate than themselves, and so on. Dr. Kaczor takes pains to point out that positive psychology is not the 1950’s Norman Vincent Peale notion of “the power of positive thinking”, nor the “I’m okay, you’re okay” mantra of the Baby Boom generation, as transmogrified by the cult of Oprah Winfrey and her prophets. Rather, positive psychology has its roots in scientific, clinical studies conducted over many years, which show that “[c]ultivating positive emotions can aid us in making wise decisions because when we are in a positive frame of mind, we can take a broader view of what is going on, and can be more open to building healthy relationships.”

Interestingly, as part of that analysis, Dr. Kaczor points out that many of the positive reinforcement ideas and methods advocated by this field of psychology are directly compatible with living the Christian life. While he acknowledges the influence of atheism and immorality in a number of psychological methods and theories, he also shows how, through the words of Christ and the examples of the saints, Christians can lead lives with the goal of more positive treatment of the self and others, and ultimately greater intimacy with God. Studies quoted throughout this volume have shown that people who are not just believers, but active in their faith, on the whole suffer far fewer incidents of clinical depression and other psychological issues, or recover more quickly from such problems, than those who have no faith or who are lackadaisical in the practices.

Here endeth our formal presentation.

On a personal level, I’m going to drop the veil – er, cape – a bit, and confess something: I need to have a good clear-out. There have been quite a number of things going on in my life over the last couple of years, and in particular over the past few months, that have left me in the position of recognizing that I need to do this. I look at where things stand and realize that while certain things are going extremely well, other things most definitely are in need of a shake-up.

Let me put it to you in a more visible way, by providing a single example: my desk at home is an absolute disaster. It is littered with the detritus of a disordered, reactionary, mostly sensual life. New books I haven’t started, unopened and unread copies of magazines, ticket stubs from long-completed travels, restaurant receipts from long-forgotten dinners, junk mail from every Catholic charity known to man, and many other such things are piled in teetering towers, just ready for The Cat to knock over. My desk has become emblematic of many aspects of both my spiritual life and my interpersonal relationships.

What Dr. Kaczor explains extremely well, in the final chapter of “The Gospel of Happiness”, is that when things get to this point, we need to take measured steps, without expecting perfection, and learn from our mistakes. An example he gives concerns gluttony, something which I’m sure even those with the most frugal appetites among us will recognize. He asks us to take a step back from giving in to the short-term pleasure of eating that candy bar at lunch, today, promising ourselves that we will give it up tomorrow. Are we willing to live with the consequences of eating a candy bar at lunch, every day, for 30 days in a row, while promising ourselves that “one day” we’ll give it up? He argues that it’s when we step back and see the whole picture, putting temporary emotions and desires in their place and recognizing as he puts it that tomorrow must be today, that we can learn to master ourselves better.

While all of Dr. Kaczor’s book is very much worth your time, it is in this final chapter, on strengthening the will, that I find he really hits the high notes, both in terms of practicality and spiritual counsel. When he looks into how and why we fail, and allow our feelings to overwhelm us, we can see that he is making a great deal of sense. It’s not enough simply to want to change certain negative behaviors or patterns in our lives, but rather understanding on a practical level what we can do about it, that Dr. Kaczor tackles brilliantly. With the help of prayer, spiritual direction, and not beating ourselves up all the time, he gives many examples and an outstanding summary of ways to move forward in your own internal life, as well as in your external relationships, so that God, neighbor, and self are all in balance.

So many books of popular psychology start out well but then fizzle out by the end. So many more simply overlook the experiences of people of faith as being irrelevant, at best, or antipathetic, at worst, to the practice of psychology. Neither of these characterizations apply to this book. For me personally, Dr. Kaczor has provided a bit of a way forward, for me to start cleaning things out and start moving rather than reacting again. Perhaps this work can do the same for you, or for someone you care about.

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Tomorrow: “Richard John Neuhaus – A Life In The Public Square”

NeuhausTomorrow evening at the Catholic Information Center here in DC, author Randy Boyagoda will be delivering a talk on his book, “Richard John Neuhaus – A Life In The Public Square“.

The story of the man perhaps best known as the author of “The Naked Public Square”, among many other books, and the founder and editor of “First Things” magazine, has not been properly told up until now. Father Neuhaus himself revealed it in glimpses, such as in his deeply introspective “As I Lay Dying”, a study about suffering arising from his experience of cancer surgery and the complications which arose from it. Yet Neuhaus himself never penned a proper autobiography, probably because he was far too busy writing other things – like this superb analysis of the waning influence of modernists in the Church (“no identity is recognizably Catholic if it skirts the question of obedience.”)

It must be very difficult indeed to fit into one volume the biography of a man who began his public life as a left-wing Protestant clergyman, marched with Dr. King, organized anti-Vietnam protests, ran for Congress, and ended up as both a conservative and a Catholic priest.  Bovagoda does so exceedingly well, but the setting out into the deep must have been intimidating, with such a wealth of material to examine.  Neuhaus’ story is one which would be interesting to tell from either a politico-philosophical or theological standpoint alone. Why did Father Neuhaus turn to the right, as the second half of the 20th century sputtered toward its conclusion? Or for that matter, why did Richard John Neuhaus, Lutheran pastor, choose to become FATHER Richard Neuhaus, Catholic priest?

Bovagoda wisely not only devotes space to these subjects, he also takes the time to give the reader some insight into who Father Neuhaus was as a human being, rather than simply as a public figure who would moderate Crossfire or sit down for a chat on BookTV.  Bovagoda’s book is not a piece of hagiography, either, even though one comes away from it even more impressed with its subject than one was before reading it. Of course, if you have read any of Neuhaus, he doesn’t really need lionizing (lector, si monumentum requiris, circumspice). Yet what are perhaps the most compelling sections in the book, which took the author five years to write, are the fly-on-the-wall details which reveal both the flaws and the goodness of Neuhaus the man.

In a telling passage, a stressed-out Father Neuhaus takes on his editor at First Things as both sounding board and receptacle for his frustration over a combination of personal pain and public reaction to a piece published by the magazine which has provoked unwanted results.  “Neuhaus knew none of the screaming and lamentations would leave the apartment,” Bovagoda writes. Later, Neuhaus acknowledged that his editor probably knew better than he did, on advising against publication of more problematic articles. “I could count on the fingers of one hand the number of articles we published that he opposed…and in retrospect, he was mostly right (I suspect he has been waiting a long time for that admission.)”

A particularly touching section recounts the last time Father Neuhaus and his good friend William F. Buckley, Jr. had lunch together, a couple of months before the latter’s death:

They talked about the book on Ronald Reagan that Buckley was writing, and the health challenges that were preventing him from making much progress, namely emphysema, the result of years of smoking that Buckley told Neuhaus he was partly to blame for, because of all the very many postprandial cigar sessions the two men had shared…There was also some business to discuss; Buckley suggested subjects to consider at the next meeting of “That Group”, the conservative talking club the two of them had founded in the early 1990’s, but, as Neuhaus recounted in the extended remembrance of Buckley in the May 2008 issue of First Things, “I do not really think that he expected to be there. I think we both knew that we were possibly, probably, meeting for the last time.” Neuhaus left Buckley’s in tears, and he was right: in lieu of seeing him again, Neuhaus wrote about Buckley instead, following his death.

The cast of characters in this book reads like a who’s who of American public life over the past half-century or more: run-ins and commentary on Presidents from LBJ to Obama reveal much, but it is in his contemporaries in the world of commentary that Neuhaus’ biography is a wonder. They are all here: Buckley, Norman Podhoretz, Irving Kristol, Frank Rich (intellectually a “toy Doberman”, per Neuhaus), and many others.  From the Catholic world, Pope Benedict XVI, Father George Rutler, George Weigel, Raymond Arroyo, and others are as equally integrated into Neuhaus’ understanding of the world he lived in as his political commentariat friends and rivals – indeed, more so, given Neuhaus’ vocation and deep religious faith. Boyagoda’s recounting of Neuhaus’ visit to see the body of his friend, Pope St. John Paul II, before his funeral at the Vatican, is both moving and telling about the way Neuhaus viewed life, and the legacy one leaves behind.

For more about Randy Boyagoda’s fascinating and comprehensive look at the life of this remarkable figure, visit the Image Publishing website. And for those of my readers who will find themselves in the DC area tomorrow, drop by the Catholic Information Center to hear Mr. Boyagoda himself speak on and answer questions about his book. And be sure to pick up some signed copies for yourself and others, for this is one work you will definitely want to add to your permanent reading and reference library.