Tag Archives: history

Surprise! Richard III Was Catholic

Hearings before a panel of three judges continued today at the High Court in London, over what to do with the remains of King Richard III.  The re-discovery of his tomb has set off a fury of argument in the UK about where the king ought to be re-buried, which has led to the current court case.  Yet much of the legal wrangling underway over where to put him seems ridiculous, because it overlooks the fact that Richard was a Catholic.

One of England’s most important and famous historical figures, further immortalized by Shakespeare, Richard III was the last of the direct line of the Plantagenet family dynasty to rule England.  He was killed in 1485 during the Battle of Bosworth Field, by troops led by his cousin Henry Tudor.  Henry subsequently took the throne as King Henry VII, and established the Tudor dynasty.

Richard III was buried rather quietly in the church of the Franciscan friary located in the city of Leicester, rather than with pomp and ceremony with other English kings in Westminster Abbey; Henry VII himself paid for a carved alabaster tomb for the man whom he had dethroned.  Following the Dissolution of the Monasteries by Henry’s son Henry VIII during the Reformation, both the Franciscan church and friary were destroyed, and Richard’s tomb was lost to history for over 400 years.  Until recently, a parking lot stood over the site of his grave, but in 2012 excavations on the site led to the re-discovery of his remains.

Historians still debate whether Richard III was the villain portrayed by Shakespeare, or whether he was the victim of calumnies spread by his opponents that passed into the popular consciousness.  Yet wherever the truth lies, one question can be answered clearly and unequivocally: Richard was born, lived, and died a Catholic.  He endowed Catholic institutions, received the Catholic sacraments, and worshiped in the Catholic faith of his fathers.  Being a Catholic who was buried in a Catholic church in the charge of a Catholic religious order, we can reasonably assume that Richard also received a Catholic burial.

Nevertheless, court arguments currently underway are apparently in a different realm of thought altogether.  One group wants Richard III to be buried in York Minster; another group thinks that he should be buried at Leicester Cathedral; a third group is arguing that he should be interred in Westminster Abbey.  While all of these medieval buildings were originally Catholic of course, today none of them are.  And unfortunately the Catholic bishop of the Diocese of Nottingham, where Richard’s remains were rediscovered, has simply left the debate entirely to others.

To re-bury Richard III in a Protestant church using some sort of cobbled-together, ecumenical banner-waving exercise, or mock-approximation of what a 15th century Catholic service for the dead *might* have looked like, would be ridiculous.  It would be like disinterring the Protestant Woodrow Wilson from his tomb at the Protestant National Cathedral here in Washington, and re-burying him in the Catholic Basilica of the Immaculate Conception on the other side of town.  Unfortunately however, it appears fairly certain that whatever the High Court decides, Richard III’s remains are going to have to go through something like this.  It is a pity that he is being treated more as a political football and potential source of tourist revenue, rather than as an opportunity to show respect for the deceased.

Facial reconstruction of what Richard III may have looked like based on his remains

Facial reconstruction of what Richard III may have looked like based on his remains

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A Message from Mrs. Kennedy

Fifty years ago yesterday, First Lady Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy went on camera for the first time following the assassination and funeral of her husband, President John F. Kennedy, to thank the nation for the outpouring of support she and her children received.  This brief film was shown around the country in movie theatres as a newsreel, and exists in two different versions – one showing Mrs. Kennedy seated with Robert and Edward Kennedy, and the other of her shown from the side.  Both are worth watching, since the effect on the viewer, or at least on this viewer, changes based on the angle, the lighting, and the closeness of the camera lens.

Now the Kennedy Library in Massachusetts has announced that more of those very condolence messages which Mrs. Kennedy received will be made available to scholars and researchers.  Some items in the collection are quite remarkable indeed. For example, there is a letter from the mother of one of the four little girls killed in the bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama only a few months before.

Whatever one thinks of the Kennedys, politically or otherwise, anyone who has experienced a great loss in their life can appreciate how these pieces of paper – cards, notes, letters, photographs – are simultaneously both hurtful and helpful.  They hurt, obviously, because the reader is reminded of their loss, and can be reminded of it again and again, should they choose to hold on to the documents.  Yet at the same time they can help, because they also remind the sufferer that they are not alone, whatever it is they may be going through.  It is then when humanity and decency are so important, in those moments when the widow or orphan is feeling they have nothing to hold on to as they attempt to go on with their lives.

Although JFK’s assassination was over 50 years ago, the images and words which Americans associate with that event continue to have an impact on the national consciousness. This message by Mrs. Kennedy was only about a minute long, and yet when one considers what had happened less than two months earlier – and the fact that she was only 34 years old at the time – her grace was truly remarkable.  It reinforced the public’s perception of her bravery as a young widow in overwhelming circumstances.  Yet it also showed that she really did appreciate the prayers and encouragement she received, and that she felt a duty to acknowledge that kindness publicly. It is quite a piece of history.

Mrs. Kennedy thanks the American people for their condolences

Mrs. Kennedy thanks the American people for their condolences

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Art Theft: Why We All Lose

The reader may have caught a recent news story about a painting bought at a flea market near Washington, D.C., which must now be returned to the museum in Baltimore from which it was stolen many decades ago.  The small canvas, “On the Shore of the Seine”, by the famous French Impressionist painter Pierre-Auguste Renoir, was supposedly purchased in a box of odds and ends for $50.00 back in 2009.  In 2012, when the alleged buyer consigned the piece for auction, it caused quite a stir in the art press, as such finds often do.  Full coverage of this fascinating story can be read in this excellent summary in the Washington Post, and indeed the BMA should be very grateful to the Post for tracking down information regarding the ownership and donation of the painting to the Museum back in 1937, records which the Museum itself was not able to locate.

Stolen art is a subject which fascinates our culture in a way which differs from other types of theft.  In film for example, the art thief is a character who usually falls into one of two types.  He is either a technically skilled expert, who steals to order for the purpose of making a profit, e.g., Sean Connery in “Entrapment”, or he is a collector who loves possessing beautiful things and enjoys the challenge of obtaining them, as did Pierce Brosnan in the (vastly superior) remake of “The Thomas Crown Affair”.  Either way, he is not a bull in a china shop, but someone who respects the fact that the property which he is stealing is to be treated as well as possible under the circumstances.

Yet just as the romanticization of figures like bank robbers or gangsters continues in popular culture without a real sense of the violence and lawlessness which surrounds the actions of such persons, the notion of the courtly art thief is an equally dangerous figment of the imagination.  In most cases, the art thief is not some suave, Cary Grant-like figure in a smoking jacket, admiring his recently-acquired Breughel the Elder hanging over the mantelpiece in his graciously appointed flat in Paris.  Rather, he is usually a low-level criminal, interested in quick access to cash, and not in the art which he has stolen.  And one of the biggest art thefts in recent years gives us just such an example.

In October 2012, two Romanian thugs stole seven paintings from the Kunsthal in Rotterdam, as part of a wider conspiracy involving several others in their home town, thanks to appallingly lax security at the Museum.  The haul included works by Claude Monet, Pablo Picasso, and Henri Matisse, which the gang subsequently attempted, unsuccessfully, to sell on the black market.  Unfortunately, it was later determined by investigators that at least three of the missing paintings – and possibly all of them – had probably been burned, in an attempt to hide evidence of the crime.

Not only did the thieves, or at least their accomplices, betray an appalling lack of appreciation for the beautiful and important things they had stolen, but this was hardly their first entanglement with the law. Ringleader Radu Dogaru for example, was already under investigation for human trafficking, pimping, and robbery at the time of his arrest last year, and several of his co-conspirators were described by locals as thugs who stole from their neighbors, and threatened them on a regular basis.  A friend of Radu allegedly involved in the heist, Adrian Procop, went on the run after the initial arrests, and was only captured in Britain a few weeks ago, when he attempted to enter the country using false documents.  Dogaru and one of the co-conspirators have already admitted guilt and were sentenced back in November, while the trial of others involved in the heist will be going forward this Spring.

As one might expect, someone has decided to make a movie about the exploits of this gang, which will hopefully portray what they did in the shameful light with which it deserves to be treated.  There is nothing adventurous, heroic, or laudable about destroying cultural artifacts: after all objects, unlike people, cannot fight back or defend themselves.  Whether it is the taking of a single, small work by an important Impressionist which somehow found its way to a suburban flea market, or art theft on the scale of the Nazis as will be recounted in the forthcoming “Monuments Men” film starring George Clooney and Cate Blanchett (which I am very much looking forward to seeing), we need to condemn art theft, not celebrate it as some sort of forgivable luxury which hurts no one.

Western culture has always looked backward for instruction and inspiration as to how it should move forward.  It is why for example the Constitution – the original copy of which is lovingly preserved at the National Archives of course – continues to shape the path of the United States today, as lawmakers and jurists revisit the intent of the Founding Fathers, and debate how to adapt an 18th century document to 21st century needs.  Without actual touchstones of history such as this, be they documents or paintings or the like, which can outlast by many centuries the people who originally created them, we lose a vital, tangible link connecting us to the past.  And we are then, all of us, the poorer when such an irreversible loss occurs.

Art thieves Eugen Darie, center, and Radu Dogaru, right

Art thieves Eugen Darie, center, and Radu Dogaru, right

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Celebrating Catholicism in American Culture

Following on from yesterday’s post, we move to a more positive topic, which is what you can do to shake up people’s misconceptions about Catholicism.  Standing up and defending the Church is critical at this time, when the Church seems to be attacked in the press and on social media every five minutes.  Yet admittedly, some of us are better at fighting these kinds of fights than others.

Truthfully what all Catholics ought to be doing is not looking to plunge into great battles in the world of public opinion, but rather engaging in what we are supposed to be doing, which is evangelizing to those around us.  It is far easier to get into often-anonymous fights on social media, or even publish scurrilous blog posts such as the one which U.S. News had the misfortune to give the go-ahead, than it is to calmly and respectfully discuss Catholicism with one’s friends and neighbors.  And even though there is unquestionably a time for arguing, even strident arguing, more often it is through a self-confident witness that we will change minds and hearts.

A few years ago for example, I was rather surprised to be informed by a Protestant friend that Catholics do not believe in the Holy Spirit. I pointed out that the whole Trinitarian “thing” was our idea.  His counter was, that even if Catholics did believe in the existence of the Holy Spirit, we did not believe that He was God.

After wondering for a moment why therefore I had bothered about being Confirmed, or celebrated the Feast of Pentecost for decades, I realized that mere argument was not going to be enough.  I challenged my friend to attend Mass with me the following Sunday, so that he could see and hear for himself what Catholics actually believe about the Holy Spirit. To his credit, being a very smart and good fellow, he agreed.

I did not look at the readings for that Sunday in advance of our visit, but I do recall that before we left for church I prayed to the Holy Spirit, asking him to let us have a good Mass, and one that would open my friend’s eyes a little regarding what he misunderstood about Catholicism.  I was rather pleased to discover when we got there that it just so happened all of the Scripture readings at Mass that particular Sunday – and the hymns, to boot – were about the Holy Spirit. That, in combination with the set prayers and blessings which we regularly pray such as the Nicene Creed, persuaded my friend that he had indeed been misinformed.

Inviting your non-Catholic friends to come to Mass with you can be a good thing, particularly if you have a generally solid parish, but what about reaching those who are not interested in darkening the door of the Church at all? This is why cultural literacy has always been such an important issue for Catholics in this country, and something which we need to encourage more Catholics to take on as a virtue.  The study of history, literature, science, and the arts reveals a wealth of material stemming from Catholic spirituality, philosophy, and creativity, which all too often non-Catholics and even many Catholics themselves are completely unaware of.

For example, the Nativity scenes which everyone just finished packing away until next year, can all trace their origins to the first such scene, which was put up by St. Francis of Assisi.  The celebration of Mardi Gras (or “Fat Tuesday”) which, hard to believe, is just over a month away, is a Catholic tradition that arose from the practice of having a last celebration of feasting on rich food and drink, before the beginning of the Catholic penitential season of Lent on Ash Wednesday.  You know those little raised bumps called “braille”, which help the blind to read and to get around on things like elevators and trains?  They were invented by a deeply devout, blind Catholic named Louis Braille, who played the organ at Mass every day and received Holy Communion on his deathbed.  And even those who are fans of sports teams at the large, secular state universities like Alabama and Oregon owe the very existence of those schools to Catholics, who founded the original universities in places like Bologna, Salamanca, Paris, and Oxford on which all subsequent universities are modeled.

So much of what Catholicism has given to the world is all around us, and yet we never take the time to point it out to others.  I suspect this is often because those of us who are inside the Church could do with some more curiosity about the Faith, but also because we often have no idea what those outside the Church have actually been taught about us.  And when we do find out what is being said behind our collective backs, as it were, we are so shocked at what others think that we do or believe, that we are at a loss to know how to respond.

Fortunately, Americans today live in an age of terrific resources, available to all for the price of a monthly internet connection.  From websites and forums, to videocasts and podcasts, to blogs and online publications, if you want to take an active interest in learning about your Church, so that you can then turn around and share that knowledge with others, you can do so at any time.  And what’s more, you can do so from the comfort of your own home, at your leisure, in a way which your Catholic ancestors could not even have imagined.

The responsibility of what you do with that information of course, is yours.  While you may use it to try to win an argument on Reddit or Twitter, in the end it may be even more productive for you to try using it to persuade someone you actually know in real life, around the water cooler or over the back fence, that perhaps Catholicism really isn’t what organizations like the (alleged) mainstream media keep saying that it is.  A Catholic who is interested in his Faith can serve as a reputable resource for not only defending the Church in the public square, but perhaps more importantly in bringing to others a sense of appreciation for the many good things which Catholicism has brought to America, and indeed to all of Western Civilization.

"Dove of the Holy Spirit" by Giusto di Giovanni de' Menabuoi (c. 1360-70) Baptistery, Padua

Detail of “Dove of the Holy Spirit” by Giusto di Giovanni de’ Menabuoi (c. 1360-70)
Baptistery, Padua

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On the Lingering Stench of American Anti-Catholicsm

You know that things must be rather bad indeed, when several atheist friends send you an article full of anti-Catholic nonsense from a prominent national publication, and ask you to comment on it.  I am of course referring to an opinion piece by a formerly obscure author, recently published on US News and World Report’s blog.  No doubt the editors of that publication are having a whale of time right now responding to the likes of the Catholic Anti-Defamation League, the Bishops’ Conference, and angry readers.

Far better writers than I, including Elizabeth Scalia at Patheos and Ed Morrissey over at Hot Air, have taken apart the arguments contained in the now-infamous article, and I direct the reader to their respective responses.  Not only did the author of the piece exhibit a gross misunderstanding of Catholicism, but her factual and logical errors render her work practically unreadable.  Yet however nauseating the piece was, it provides us with a tremendous teaching opportunity to remind Catholics and non-Catholics alike how far we have had to come in this country.

For those outside the Church, we Catholics may seem somewhat strange and mysterious. The “Pope Francis Effect” aside, apart from things like the annual screening of “The Sound of Music” on television, it is entirely possible to grow up in some parts of America having little or no exposure to Catholic life.  It is why entertainments full of anti-Catholic lies and nonsense, such as the work of Dan Brown, can capture the imaginations of so many people.  There is a regrettable, lingering perception in some corners of our culture that Catholics are practicing evil, secret rites revealed only to a few.  Regrettably, these lingering doubts have had consequences in American cultural and political life.

Back in 1928 for example, when New York Governor Al Smith – a Catholic – was running for President against incumbent Herbert Hoover, many feared Smith would try to overturn the 18th Amendment, i.e. Prohibition, which itself had become law partially as the result of widespread American anti-Catholicism.  Politicians, church groups, the Klan, and the mainstream media fell over themselves tossing out anti-Catholic vitriol.

The press in particular had a field day going after Catholics, printing scurrilous opinion pieces and vicious political cartoons, speculating that Smith was, among other things, intending to build a secret tunnel under the Atlantic Ocean to connect the White House to the Vatican, or that the Pope would attend Cabinet meetings to order Smith on how to act.  Smith personally and Catholics in general were denounced in Congress, such as in this rather astonishing speech given on the floor of the Senate by Senator Thomas J. Heflin of Alabama:

Wake up, Americans! Gird your loins for political battle, the like of which you here not seen in all the tide of time in this country. Get ready for this battle. The Roman Catholics of every country on the earth are backing his campaign. Already they are spending money in the South buying up newspapers, seeking to control the vehicles that carry the news to the people. They are sending writers down there from New York and other places to misrepresent and slander our State, all this to build a foundation on which to work for Al Smith for President. The Roman Catholic edict has gone forth in secret articles, “Al Smith is to be made President.” Doctor McDaniel said: “Of all countries the Pope wants to control this country.” “The Knights of Columbus slogan,“ said Doctor Chapman, . . . ”is make America Catholic.” Here they tell you in their book that they will force the propaganda of Protestants to cease, they will lay the heavy hand of a Catholic state upon you and crush the life out of Protestantism in America.

Congressional Record (January 28, 1928), 1st Session, 70th Congress, vol. 69, pt. 2, 1654–55, 1658.

The tradition which the author of the U.S. News piece grows out of is, regrettably, rather a long one in American history.  Fortunately, today reasonable Americans can presumably agree that there is something deeply disturbing about citing the religion of the majority of the justices of the Supreme Court as a basis for denouncing that body.  Substitute “race” for “religion” in the forgoing, and you will see what I mean.  It should therefore be very easy to dismiss such arguments out of hand as the labored ramblings of a poorly formed mind.

However for those of us within the Church, the challenge is a bit more difficult.  It is easy to leap to the defense of Holy Mother Church, but it is perhaps not so easy to dispel lingering notions about Catholicism among our non-Catholic brethren in this country.  There is still a pungent odor of anti-Catholicism wafting about certain corners of our society, which would permit a piece like this to be greenlighted and published in a mainstream publication.  And I suspect it remains so, because we Catholics are simply not good at explaining who and what we are, and are not, not only to those outside the Church but even to ourselves.

Perhaps then here we need to close on a positive point, by encouraging Catholics to reach out to their friends and show them what Catholicism actually is, and what it is not.  So for tomorrow’s blog post, I will share a positive example of how I was able to do just that in my own life, and perhaps provide some encouragement for you to try doing the same.  There is nothing like first-hand experience for bringing people together.

Illustration from Harper’s magazine of Catholic Bishops as crocodiles, 1876.

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